The paper from José Guevara-Campos and colleagues  (open-access can be downloaded here) is fodder for today's short post, and a topic that has not been seen on this blog for quite a while: hyperlactacidemia (elevated plasma lactate levels) and autism.
Previous mentions of lactate and autism on this blog (see here and see here) were potentially pretty important; specifically, how elevated plasma lactate levels might (a) not be an unfamiliar finding for quite a few people on the autism spectrum  and (b) might provide further evidence for the involvement of mitochondria in cases of autism among other things . Mitochondria and autism, I might add, is still quite a complicated topic but a research area in the ascendancy.
Guevara-Campos et al reported on case reports for "three patients diagnosed with developmental delay, ID [intellectual disability] and ASD [autism spectrum disorder], and also with a possible mitochondrial disease accompanied by an ETC [electron transport chain] deficiency accompanied by hyperlactacidemia." There are various data provided following some clinical investigations including that based on muscle biopsy data. Just as important are some of the details on 'pharmacological treatment' of said issues and the observed impact on presented symptoms. Without cherry-picking too much, carnitine, a vitamin B complex, co-enzyme Q10 and folic acid combined seemed to have quite an effect on participants, particularly on "intellectual abilities". Some of these interventions have been trialled in other conditions where mitochondria or their important processes are suspected to show involvement (see here). I say this without providing endorsement or recommendation.
Appreciating that there is quite a bit more to do (experimentally) when it comes to "suspected mitochondrial involvement" specifically where autism is mentioned, and in particular, the need for quite a bit more controlled study on how such interventions might impact on symptoms in this group, I'm interested in the Guevara-Campos report. How many people on the autism spectrum their results hold true for is as yet unknown. With the growth in this area of research however, I'd be minded to suggest that we should really start directing a lot more resources to trying to answer that question if we are indeed going to start taking the plural autisms a little more seriously. Oh, and as per the sentiments of the paper by Zilberter and colleagues  there may yet be related factors which might be of "potential therapeutic significance."
Music: Roots Manuva - Witness. Brilliant.
 Guevara-Campos J. et al. Autism and Intellectual Disability Associated with Mitochondrial Disease and Hyperlactacidemia. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Feb 11;16(2):3870-3884.
 Oliveira G. et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005 Mar;47(3):185-9.
 Andersen LW. et al. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Oct;88(10):1127-40.
 Zilberter Y. et al. A unique array of neuroprotective effects of pyruvate in neuropathology. Front. Neurosci. 2015. Feb 17.
Guevara-Campos J, González-Guevara L, & Cauli O (2015). Autism and Intellectual Disability Associated with Mitochondrial Disease and Hyperlactacidemia. International journal of molecular sciences, 16 (2), 3870-3884 PMID: 25679448